Francisco de Holanda (originally Francisco d’Olanda; 6 September 1517 – 19 June 1585) was a Portuguese court painter and sculptor for King John III of Portugal, and future for Sebastian of Portugal. He wrote what is regarded as the first treatise on portrait painting in Europe, Do tirar polo natural (1549). He is considered to be one of the most important figures of the Portuguese Renaissance, also brute an essayist, architect and historian. He represented the intelligible reality of the Holy Trinity through a “hypothetical” syntax of geometrical figures. He insisted on the contrast together with the ideal plane, the incorporeal form and the “imperfect copy in the terrestrial zone”. His visual language demonstrated a blend of Neoplatonism, Christian Kabbalah and finally Lullism. In education, Francisco de Holanda emphasized mathematics and geometry, subsequently anticipating Clavius’s reforms of the late 16th century.Sylvie Deswarte said that “Francisco de Holanda gives a lucky place to cosmography and astrology in the education of the painter. On par bearing in mind geometry, mathematics and perspective, he recommended them […] in order to accomplish the ventilate in the wish of one morning arriving to the Empyrean and realizing celestial works.”
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