Mali (; French pronunciation: ), officially the Republic of Mali (French: République du Mali; Bambara: ߡߊߟߌ ߞߊ ߝߊߛߏߖߊߡߊߣߊ, romanized: Mali ka Fasojamana, Fula: 𞤈𞤫𞤲𞥆𞤣𞤢𞥄𞤲𞤣𞤭 𞤃𞤢𞥄𞤤𞤭, romanized: Renndaandi Maali, Arabic: جمهورية مالي), is a landlocked country in West Africa. Mali is the eighth-largest country in Africa, with an area of just over 1,240,000 square kilometres (480,000 sq mi). The population of Mali is 19.1 million. 67% of its population was estimated to be under the age of 25 in 2017. Its capital and largest city is Bamako. The sovereign welcome of Mali consists of eight regions and its borders upon the north achieve deep into the center of the Sahara Desert. The country’s southern part is in the Sudanian savanna, where the majority of inhabitants live, and both the Niger and Senegal rivers pass through. The country’s economy centres upon agriculture and mining. One of Mali’s most prominent natural resources is gold, and the country is the third largest producer of gold upon the African continent. It with exports salt.
Present-day Mali was following part of three West African empires that controlled trans-Saharan trade: the Ghana Empire (for which Ghana is named), the Mali Empire (for which Mali is named), and the Songhai Empire. At its zenith in 1300, the Mali Empire covered an area about twice the size of modern-day France and stretched to the west coast of Africa. In the late 19th century, during the Scramble for Africa, France seized direct of Mali, making it a part of French Sudan. French Sudan (then known as the Sudanese Republic) joined gone Senegal in 1959, achieving independence in 1960 as the Mali Federation. Shortly thereafter, following Senegal’s termination from the federation, the Sudanese Republic acknowledged itself the independent Republic of Mali. After a long times of one-party rule, a coup in 1991 led to the writing of a supplementary constitution and the inauguration of Mali as a democratic, multi-party state.
In January 2012, an armed clash broke out in northern Mali, in which Tuareg rebels took govern of a territory in the north, and in April declared the secession of a extra state, Azawad. The encounter was complicated by a military coup that took place in March and later proceedings between Tuareg and new rebel factions. In appreciation to territorial gains, the French military launched Opération Serval in January 2013. A month later, Malian and French forces recaptured most of the north. Presidential elections were held on 28 July 2013, with a second-round run-off held on 11 August, and legislative elections were held on 24 November and 15 December 2013.
At the direction of 2020s Mali experienced two military takeovers by Assimi Goïta.
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